Human parasites include various protozoa and worms that may infect humans that cause parasitic diseases. Human parasites are divided into endoparasites, which cause infection inside the body, and ectoparasites, which cause infection superficially within the skin.

The cysts and eggs of endoparasites may be found in feces, which aids in the detection of the parasite in the human host while also providing the means for the parasitic species to exit the current host and enter other hosts. Although there are a number of ways in which humans can contract parasitic infections, observing basic hygiene and cleanliness tips can reduce its probability. The most accurate diagnosis is by qPcr DNA antigen assay, not generally available by primary care physicians in the USA: most labs offer research only service.

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It was assumed that early human ancestors generally had parasites, but until recently there was no evidence to support this claim. Generally, the discovery of parasites in ancient humans relies on the study of feces and other fossilized material. The earliest known parasite in a human was eggs of the lung fluke found in fossilized feces in northern Chile and is estimated to be from around 5900 BC. There are also claims of hookworm eggs from around 5000 BC in Brazil and large roundworm eggs from around 2330 BC in Peru. Tapeworm eggs have also been found present in Egyptian mummies dating from around 2000 BC, 1250 BC, and 1000 BC along with a well preserved and calcified female worm inside of a mummy.

The first written records of parasites date from 3000 to 400 BC in Egyptian papyrus records. They identify parasites such as roundworms, Guinea worms, threadworms, and some tapeworms of unknown varieties. In ancient Greece, Hippocrates and Aristotle documented several parasites in his collection of works Corpus Hippocraticus. In this book, they documented the presence of worms and other parasites inside of fish, domesticated animals, and humans. The bladder worm is well documented in its presence in pigs along with the larval stages of a tapeworm (Taenia solium). These tapeworms were mentioned in a play by Aristophanes as "hailstones" with Aristotle in the section about pig diseases in his book History of Animals. The cysts of the Echinococcus granulosus tapeworm were also well known in ancient cultures mainly because of their presence in slaughtered and sacrificed animals. The major parasitic disease that has been documented in early records is dracunculiasis. This disease is caused by the Guinea worm and is characterized by the female worm emerging from the leg. This symptom is so specific to the disease that it is mentioned in many texts and plays that predate 1000 AD.